Dec 02, 2015 03:47 Co-creation in the front end of healthcare projects

Co-creation is in use across many different industries today and it has finally started to impact the design of healthcare products, environments and services. This is an important trend since good design in healthcare projects has the potential to improve the quality of life for many people. The earlier in the process that co-creation is applied, the more impact it can have on the design and development of products, environments and services.


What are the merits of using co-creation on healthcare projects?

Healthcare projects are complex and many different stakeholders can be involved. Co-creation in healthcare projects takes a lot of time and resources but the payoff at the end can be enormous. The use of co-creation in the front end of design can improve the end results of healthcare projects in three ways. First, by involving the stakeholders as co-creators in the process, there is a far better chance that the end results will meet their needs. Second, when the stakeholders are actively involved as co-creators they will have ownership of what is designed since they will have played a role in the process.  Feelings of ownership can lead to feelings of empowerment that will have a positive impact on how the stakeholders do their jobs. Third, when people have ownership of the solution it is easier for them during the transition period, i.e., the time period during which people learn how to use the new product, environment or service.


A short case study of co-creation in the front end of healthcare design

The design of new hospital rooms typically takes into account the needs of patients, family members and nurses. But there are many other people who work in the hospital room such as doctors, imaging technologists, sitters, dieticians, cleaners, repair people, and many more. I am working on a co-creation project now with other researchers at The Ohio State University where we are investigating the needs of all the people who work in and/or stay in the hospital room.  We have invited people from 23 different stakeholder groups to participate in the process! This is an example of extreme co-creation in the front end of the design process.


We are now in a co-creation phase where we invite small groups of stakeholders to work together to create their ideal hospital room. We provide them with all the components that go into the patient room and let them decide where things should go. Everything in the room is full size. The walls are all covered with Velcro so that the stakeholders can stick components (such as outlets, shelves, light switches, TV, etc.) exactly where they want them to go. The bathroom can be moved to any place in the room since the walls, the sink and the toilet are all on wheels.  We are now in the process of analysing the results of 30 full-scale, co-creation workshops to develop guidelines for the design of hospital rooms that will meet the needs of all the people who work, heal, and/or visit in these rooms.


What are things to think about when planning to use co-creation in the front end?

When planning to use co-creation in the front end of the design process it is best to have buy-in at the top level of the organization since you will want to collaborate with stakeholders from all levels and positions in the organization.  You will need a group of dedicated co-designers who are able to stay involved in the process over time. It is best to work with people who are eager to be involved as co-designers. Coercing people to take part in a co-creation process when they are not interested in doing so or when they are skeptical about the process should be avoided.


Using co-creation in the front end of healthcare projects will be an iterative process.  It will take time and many trials to figure out how best to make it work. It is important to visualize the process so that all the co-creators can see what they have accomplished together. It is also important that the co-creation effort be communicated to all interested parties in the organization. By sharing the process you can identify additional stakeholders to bring into the co-creation workshops. Advanced communication technologies and social networking can help to keep all interested stakeholders involved in the process as co-creators.


What can we expect in the future?

We can expect to see more co-creation efforts emerging in healthcare design in the future. In fact, Philips recently announced that it has opened its first "HealthSuite Labs Co-creation Center" in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. According to the company, the centers will "allow healthcare experts and general practitioners to work together in teams, with patients as well as business experts from multiple fields, to co-create and implement integrated care solutions" (from the press release). Philips plans to open more co-creation centers around the world, including some in the US and Asia. 

Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

Oct 14, 2015 09:00 ファシリテーターとしてのデザイナー:新しい役割













私の知っているベストなファシリテーター学習リソースは、Group Works Card Deck(グループ作業カードデック)です。優れたファシリテーターが習得し実践している内容を、100枚のカードに表示しています。このカードはさまざまな組織的バックグラウンドを持つ50人以上のボランティアが、グループセッションを成功に導くための知恵を出し合い、3年以上かけて作成しました(Group Pattern Language Project)。




Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

Oct 01, 2015 08:50 Designer as facilitator: A new role

There has been discussion recently about the changing roles of designers. One of these new roles is the designer (or design researcher) as facilitator. With the increased interest in bringing various stakeholders into the co-designing process comes the need to support those who are not trained in design during group sessions that require collaboration, ideation and decision-making.


What do facilitators do?

Sometimes designers serve as facilitators for a group of like-minded people. This is the situation for focus groups or co-design workshops with future users.  But with the rise in interest in co-designing, designers are increasingly being asked to facilitate group sessions where diverse people have been gathered to address complex challenges. It is often the case that the people are from different backgrounds and have different goals for their organizations. This is a most challenging type of facilitation and requires a high degree of expertise in a facilitator.


The facilitator must understand the objectives of the group session. Is it to share information and resources? Or is it to collaborate? To resolve issues? To solve problems? Or to generate new ideas?  Each of these objectives will take a different facilitation plan and most group sessions will have multiple objectives. The experienced moderator must come up with a plan to address the key objective(s) but also have other plans in their "back pocket" just in case they are needed.


Who can be a facilitator?

Anyone in the organization can be a facilitator but it takes a lot of practice to be a good facilitator. The match between the facilitator and the people in the group session is also important. For example, age and gender should be carefully considered.


What are the abilities and skills needed to be a good facilitator?

The most important skill is that the facilitator is a good listener.  This means that they listen attentively but also with empathy toward the participants. The facilitator must be able to listen and think at the same time. Their role is to get the participants talking and working together. Sometimes there is silence; for example, when someone is thinking about what they want to say or when several people are creating something together. It is not necessary to fill the silences with talking.


A good facilitator is organized and can follow the agreed upon agenda within the time frame that has been set aside for the group session. A good facilitator does not lead the discussion and does not share their own opinions.  They are there to bring out and to visualize the viewpoints of the others. A good facilitator gets the conversation going, keeps it going and under control.

The facilitator must truly believe that all the participants have something important and unique to add the session. In addition, a good facilitator must be able to manage the group dynamics so that everyone has a chance to say what they think or feel. Sometimes the facilitator will need to draw people out in order to ensure that the quiet participants can be heard.

Learning to facilitate is not something that you can learn from a book or from listening to lectures or youtube videos. It is something that you learn by doing. It can take many years for this skill to build.  Confidence in facilitation comes with practice. If you do not have confidence the participants can tell and the session may not go well. One way to get practice is to start by serving as an assistant to an experienced facilitator.


What are the other conditions for good facilitation?

The facilitator needs an assistant who can take care of certain activities so that the facilitator can focus on supporting the needs of the group. The assistant takes notes and audio-records so that the session is well-documented. The assistant makes sure that the facilitator has whatever they need to keep the session on track and on schedule.


The space that has been set up for the group session must be designed to ensure that the participants are welcomed, feel comfortable and have plenty of room to move around. Good food is also important. It is not only the physical qualities of a space that make it welcoming. It's also the way that the facilitator welcomes the participants to the session and makes them feel comfortable with each other.


Is there a good resource for learning about facilitation?

The best resource that I have seen for facilitators is the Group Works Card Deck. It contains 100 cards that describe what skilled facilitators have learned and what they practice. The cards were created by more than fifty volunteers (the Group Pattern Language Project) from a wide variety of organizational backgrounds who worked together over three years to express the core wisdom at the heart of successful group sessions.  


A few of the cards, some that mirror the points made in this short paper, can be seen below.

The entire card deck can be purchased or downloaded here:


Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

Aug 17, 2015 01:00 コ・クリエーションとは何か? その価値とパターン



デザイン・開発のプロセスではここ10年から20年の間で変革が起こり、テーマの決まらない"あいまいな初期段階(fuzzy front end)"に時間がかけられるようになりました。これからの社会に必要なものを問い、探求する活動が行われるのが、まさにこの初期段階です。何がデザインできるのか、あるいは何を避けるべきなのかを、ここで決めるのです。あいまいな初期段階では、「人々のためにデザインする方法」、あるいは、「人々とデザインすることを考慮に入れてアプローチする」方法を取ることができます。デザインするにあたって、プロジェクトメンバーやデザイナーではない他の人々を自分たちのデザインプロセスに招き入れること、それこそが「コ・クリエーション」なのです。















Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

Jul 10, 2015 03:00 共創(Co-creation):1992年以降、私たちはどこまで進歩したか?

私は 1992年に『収束的視点:1990年代のための製品開発リサーチ(Converging Perspectives: Product Development Research for the 1990's)』と題した論文を書き、それが「Design Management Journal」に掲載されました。当時、新製品の失敗率が80パーセント前後というかなり高い時期にあり、私は、この論文でデザインリサーチの現状を説明するよう求められました。そこで私は現状を説明する代わりに、1990年代以降に向けて、どのようにデザインに取り組めるかを提案することにしました。それはたんなる予測ではなく、将来に向けた期待を述べることでした。私がそうした期待を述べてから、これまでに何か起こったか、振り返ってみる時がやってきました。


先の論文における重要なポイントは、いかなる製品も「役立つ」「使用できる」「望ましい」を同時に兼ね備えていなければならない、ということでした。「役立つ製品とは、消費者が必要としていて、使うことになる製品。使える製品とは、 消費者がすぐに使用できるか、またはすぐに使い方を理解できる製品。そして、望ましい製品とは消費者が使いたくなる製品である」(1992年)

「役立つ」「使える」「望ましい」というモットーは、これまでデザインに関わる多くの人々に取り上げられてきました。そして今日、このモットーは、人間中心の製品とサービスをデザインする上で 第一の目的としてしばしば使用されています。
このモットーが特にユーザーエクスペリエンス(UX)デザイナーの中で良く知られているのは、 ピーター・モービル(Peter Morville)が2004年にこのモットーを拡大(図1)したためです。モービルの「ユーザーエクスペリエンスのハニカム(蜂の巣)」は、成功する製品とサービスの中核的な特性に、「みつけられる(Findable)」、「信頼できる(Credible」)、「アクセスできる(Accessible)」という目的を追加しています。


図 1: ユーザーエクスペリエンスのハニカム構造 (

より最近では、このモデルはビジネスの世界でも使用されるようになりました。その代表例が、「カスタマーエクスペリエンス・ピラミッド(2012年)」で、Forrester Researchが発行した、Harley Manningと Kerry Bodineの共著『Outside In: The Power of Putting Customers at the Center of Your Business(顧客をあなたのビジネスの中心に置くことの強み)』という本で紹介されています。そこでは、主要な特性は同じですが、異なる用語が使われています。「役立つ」を「ニーズを満たしている(Meets needs)」に、「使える」を 「簡単(Easy)」に、「望ましい」を「楽しめる(Enjoyable)」としているのです。


図 2: カスタマーエクスペリエンス・ピラミッド(

私たちは今、「役立つ」「使える」「望ましい」を同時に兼ね備えた製品やサービスをデザインしているでしょうか? 答えは「ノー」です。私たちは、「使用できること(Usability)」と「望ましさ(Desirability)」について、どのように対処すべきかわかっています。けれども私たちはいまも、どうすれば将来の製品を「役立つ」ものにできるか、というレベルにとどまっているのです。


では、1992年以降、他に何か変わったのでしょうか? 変化のために何を取り組んできたでしょうか?


今日、デザインリサーチはデザインプロセス全体に取り入れられています。ご存じの通り、何をデザインするかを決める際には「生成的な(Generative)デザインリサーチ」を初期段階で取り入れます。また、デザインプロセスの後半には「評価的な(Evaluative)デザインリサーチ」を取り入れて、どのようにデザインすれば ベストかを判断しています。


「収束的視点(Converging perspectives)とは、製品開発の課題に取り組むために2つ以上の調査方法を使用することを指す」(1992年)






私たちは1992年以降、大きな進歩を遂げてきました。すべてのステークホルダーと手を携えた共創(Co-creation)、そして、デザインと開発プロセス全体にわたる共創が今日の現実です。20年後はどのようになっているのでしょうか? おそらく私たちは、「使える」「望ましい」そして「役立つ」製品とサービスをデザインしているでしょう。


リズ・サンダース / MakeTools

Liz SandersMakeTools 代表



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