Aug 17, 2016 02:00 What is co-design and where is it happening?

Co-design is the topic of many discussions today. But these discussions can be confusing because co-designing has many meanings. For example, some people use the term co-design to refer to the use of specific tools and techniques. Others see it as an approach to design research. Still others talk about co-design as a mindset that describes the culture of a company. I will argue that co-designing can be all three: set of tools and techniques, an approach to design research and also a mindset of the company culture. But its impact will vary depending upon the perspective we take regarding its value.

The design and development process has transformed over the last 10 to 20 years with the growth of a large front end that is often referred to as the "fuzzy front end". It is here activities take place in order to inform and inspire the exploration of open-ended questions. In the front end of the design process we determine what could be (or should not be) designed.
The fuzzy front end can be approached from a designing for people or a designing with people mindset. When we invite people into the design process to design with us, we are taking the co-designing or co-creation approach.

Figure 1: Co-creation and co-designing are taking place at all points of time along the design and development process.

Co-creation can take place at every point along the design and development process as the dots in Figure 1 show. But it is not always used at all points along the process.

In Figure 2 another dimension has been added to the design and development process. Here three levels of value that can be adressed in the co-design process (monetary, use/experience and societal) are shown.

Figure 2: Co-designing provides different types of value at various points along the design and development process.

The monetary value of co-creation, the top level, has received the most attention in the business community. Co-creation that results in monetary value is aimed at making money. Co-creation at the monetary level does not necessarily require direct contact between the company and its customers. For example, crowd-sourcing can be used to obtain feedback from customers about products, services and brands.

The use/experience value of co-creation is fueled by a company's desire to transform consumers into users by ensuring that the products and services they offer will better meet people's wants and needs. Co-designing at the use/experience level may impact monetary gain if its application results in satisfied repeat customers.

The societal value of co-creation is aimed at longer term and more sustainable ways of living. It supports the exploration of big and open-ended questions such as "how can we improve the quality of life for people living with a chronic illness?" Co-creation at the societal level involves the integration of experts and everyday people working closely together. Direct personal involvement between such people is needed for this type of co-creation.

The shapes shown in Figure 2 reveal that co-creation with a focus on monetary value is more likely to take place later in the design development process, in the design adoption stages such as marketing, sales and distribution. Co-creation with a focus on the use/experience level tends to take place during the design process. And societal value co-creation starts in the very early front end and continues throughout the design and development process. So the earlier in the design development process that co-designing or co-creation occurs, the greater will be the likely impact.

Figure 2 shows the pattern of the three distinct applications of co-designing:
Co-designing as a collection of tools and techniques refers to the use of specific tools and techniques after the design of the product or service. This is a fast and low-cost way to drive interest in and attention to brands and/or new products and services in the marketplace.

Co-designing as an approach refers to the use of participatory methods in design. This application is used primarily during the discovery and design exploration phases.

Co-designing as a mindset has the most potential to impact the lives of people in the future since it starts in the fuzzy front end of the process. If the co-designing mindset is shared by all the people in the organization, its impact will be very large. However, the co-designing mindset may not be shared by them all. But it can start in small ways and grow to define the company culture if it is nurtured over time. For example, the adoption of co-designing practices might start at the monetary level and then move to the use/experience level and move, finally, to the societal level.

Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

May 30, 2016 06:45 デザイナーの日々の活動としての"ユーザー中心デザイン"




レベル1 :人々から学ぶ
レベル2 :人々と共感する
レベル3 :コ・デザインする


レベル1: 人々から学ぶ




レベル 2: 人々と共感する
2.jpgのサムネール画像人と共感することでさらに"ユーザー中心"になることができます。気持ちをシェアしたり、理解するといった共感によって、実際の生活や経験により近づくことができ、将来求められている製品やサービスのデザインにつなげられるようになります。共感するためには、人を観察したり話をするだけでは不十分です。まず必要なのは、ユーザーの視点に立つためにデザイナー自身の視点から抜け出すことです。その上で自身の視点に戻るといったステップを踏むと、より深い学びを得ることができます(Kouprie and Sleeswijk Visser, 2009)。これを実行するには(自分の視点から抜け出す)勇気、自信が必要になります。

共感のできるデザイナーになるためには、観察だけにとどまらず、ユーザーのライフスタイルや環境に入りこむことがよい経験になります。これによって、新しいライフスタイルの発見にもつながります。また他のアプローチとして、ユーザーの生活を演じ、ロールプレイのテクニックを利用することもできます。バーチャルリアリティーはまだあまり一般的ではありませんが、共感するための新しい方法としては極めて有望です。その代表的な例がTED Talkでの Chris Milkのプレゼンテーション「How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine」で語られています。

レベル3: コ・デザインする
3.jpgのサムネール画像人を招き、パートナーとして一緒にデザインや開発のプロセスを踏むと、より"ユーザー中心"になることができます。このレベルでのユーザーはデザインプロセスにおける参加者として扱います。ここでは参加者とデザイナーとの関係はとても近いので、人間中心のアプローチという べきかもしれません。ユーザー中心のデザインの中でもコ・デザインは特異な手段といえます。というのも、ユーザーの過去、現在、未来の経験を語るうえで、彼らがエキスパートであることをデザイナーとしてしっかりと認識しておかなければならないからです。

※このプロセスの詳細は「Sanders and Stappers, 2012」(を参照し、人とのコ・デザインについての考察に役立ててください。

Kouprie, M. and Sleeswijk Visser, F. (2009) A framework for empathy in design: stepping into and out of the user's life, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol. 20, No. 5, October 2009, 437-448

Milk, C. How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine, TED Talk, April 22, 2015.

Sanders, E.B.-N. and Stappers, P.J. (2012) Convivial Toolbox: Generative Research for the Front End of Design, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam.

Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

May 30, 2016 06:42 Daily activities for designers to be user centered

What does being "user-centered" mean?
User-centered designers are able to design whatever they are designing, whether that is a product or a service, around how users can actually use the product/service, rather than forcing the people to change their behavior to accommodate the product/service.

There are three levels from which designers can approach user-centered designing. The designer and user become closer to each other as one progresses through the levels. Designers might choose to focus on the level on which they feel most comfortable. Or they might choose to start at Level 1 and then advance to Levels 2 and 3 as they gain experience.

1. Learning from people.
2. Empathy with people
3. Co-designing with people.


Level 1: Learning from people.

1.jpgA designer can become user-centered by paying more attention to what people say and do. In Level 1 the people (who might become the users of the product or service) are viewed by the designer from a distance.

To learn from people, listen to what people say. Let them do the talking. The best way to do this is in a face-to face conversation. Have a few questions ready to get the conversation started and then let the conversation go in the way that is the most natural.

Observe what people do as they go about their daily lives. You do not want to intrude on their lives so just watch and make notes later about what was interesting or surprising. Once you start observing carefully, you will notice all kinds of insights and opportunities.

For example, if you are interested in learning from people about your products or services, have conversations with them about your products or services. Or watch them as they shop for and/or use your products and services. If you have conversations with people in their natural environments you will be able to learn from what they say and do simultaneously.

Level 2: Empathy with people.

2.jpgA designer can become more user-centered by learning to empathize with people, i.e., understand them and share their feelings. Empathic designers attempt to get closer to the lives and experiences of their future users in order to design products or services that better meet their needs. Design empathy goes beyond watching people in their natural environments and talking to them. Empathy requires that the designer first step out of their own perspective in order to enter into the perspective of the user. Then the designer must return to his or her own perspective, having been influenced by the stepping into and out of the user's life (Kouprie and Sleeswijk Visser, 2009). It takes courage and confidence to do this.

Some activities that designers can practice to become empathic designers include immersing themselves in the user's environment and lifestyle. This goes beyond observing and becomes a new way of living, at least for a while. Another approach is to use role-playing techniques such as acting out the user's life. The use of Virtual Reality, although still out of reach for many, holds great promise for new ways to empathize with people. A good example of this is the TED Talk by Chris Milk called How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine‬.

Level 3: Co-designing with people.


A designer can become more user-centered by inviting people to partner with him or her in the design and development process. In Level 3, people (who might become the users of the product or service) are seen as participants in the design process. Their relationship to the designer is very close. In fact, I would say that this is better described as a human-centered approach. Co-designing with people is the most extreme form of user-centered design as it means that the designer must recognize that others are the experts when it comes to their experiences of the past, present and the future.

In designing with people you will need to engage them in an iterative and interactive exploration of making, telling and enacting. For example, you might invite users to visualize their ideas for future experience by using generative tools for making such as image collaging or Velcro-modeling. Then you would ask them to share what they have made by telling how they would use it. Or you might ask them to demonstrate how it would fit into their lives by using it as a prop when enacting future scenarios. The interested reader will want to refer to Sanders and Stappers, 2012( )for more ideas about co-designing with people.

Kouprie, M. and Sleeswijk Visser, F. (2009) A framework for empathy in design: stepping into and out of the user's life, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol. 20, No. 5, October 2009, 437-448

Milk, C. How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine, TED Talk, April 22, 2015.

Sanders, E.B.-N. and Stappers, P.J. (2012) Convivial Toolbox: Generative Research for the Front End of Design, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam.

Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

Apr 12, 2016 05:10 How can design be better integrated into your organization?

The impact of design is growing

The role of design and design thinking in business has undergone rapid growth in the past five years. More and more businesses have realized the value that design can bring and they are finding various ways to increase the role of design and the number of designers in their organizations. Gjoko Muratovski (2015) has recently published an excellent case study of this phenomenon in the new open access journal called She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation."She Ji is a peer-reviewed, transdisciplinary design journal with a focus on economics and innovation, design process and design thinking"(

Muratovski identifies four ways in which the role of design is changing and impacting an organization's ability to drive change: 1) through design-led business approaches, 2) through the growth of corporate in-house design teams, 3) through the creation of new types of businesses and start-ups and 4) through social innovation via global organizations and foundations. In this short paper I will discuss design-led business approaches and the growth of corporate in-house design teams.


The design-led business approach

A design-led business usually has a designer on the executive team. Apple is probably the best known example.  This takes a special kind of designer, one who knows how to design but also knows how to speak in the language of business.  So one way to better integrate design into the entire organization is to promote a designer to the executive board of the organization. This move is likely to lead to growth and integration of the internal design team since the application of design thinking will be promoted broadly by that individual. A recent article posted to the website describes the role of the Chief Design Officer (CDO)  as one of the "most important design jobs of the future."  Having a CDO will enable the organization to work toward ensuring that all components of the business are designed in a strategic and holistic manner.  However, adding a designer to the executive board may not be possible for many organizations.


Approaches for growing the corporate in-house design team

Growing the in-house design team has recently become a strong trend, especially in the US (Muratovski, 2015). There are several ways this is happening. Some organizations who did not previously have in-house design have integrated this capability internally by purchasing small to medium-sized design consultancies.  Others have grown the size of their current in-house capabilities by purchasing and integrating design consultancies. And still other organizations have added to their in-house capabilities by hiring a design leader who brings many years of previous experience.

There are two approaches for how internal design teams can operate within an organization. One approach is to see the design team members as the people responsible for all the design and the design thinking within the organization. A more radical approach for how internal design teams can operate within an organization is to consider everyone in the organization to be a design thinker. This approach can entail a very broad re-education of people in the organization. In this situation those people with expertise in design will expand their roles into being trainers and facilitators of creative and design thinking throughout the organzation. IBM, for example, is undertaking this more radical approach and is in the process of hiring 1000 professional designers over the next few years and providing design thinking training to much of its management work force (Lohr, 2105).


Other approaches for better integrating design into your organization

What if your organization does not have the ability to act upon the strategies described above? What are some tactical approaches to achieving better integration of the design team into the entire organization? One approach is for members of the in-house design team to educate the management team about the value of design thinking. The idea is not to turn them into design thinkers, but to have them begin to realize what desgin thinking can bring to the organization. Another approach is for members of the design team to push to become involved in a wider variety of company initiatives than they are normally involved in. Perhaps they can be included much earlier in the design process and work on identifying problems to solve instead of simply being seen as the problem solvers. Getting involved on a wide range of internal projects is a good way to get started in integrating design within the organization. Starting small and seeding the spread of design thinking within an organization will also bring visibility to the design team.



Lohr, S. (2015) IBM's design-centered strategy to set free the squares. The New York Times, November 15, 2015.

Muratovski G. (2015) Paradigm shift: The new role of design in business and society, She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, doi: 10.1016/ j.sheji.2015.11.002.

The most important design jobs of the future: Designers at Google, Microsoft, Autodesk, IDEO, Artefact, Teague, Lunar, Huge, New Deal and Fuseproject predict 18 new design jobs.

Liz SandersMakeTools 代表

Apr 12, 2016 05:06 デザインを組織にうまく取り入れる方法とは?


企業におけるデザインとデザイン思考の役割が過去5年間で急速に拡がってきています。デザインのもたらす価値を認識し、組織内におけるデザインの役割とデザイナーの数をさまざまな方法で拡大している企業が増えてきているのです。Gjoko Muratovski2015)は最近、この現象に関する優れたケーススタディをオープンアクセス形式の新ジャーナル「She Ji : The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation」に発表しました。「She Ji は、エコノミクス、イノベーション、デザインプロセスそしてデザイン思考を対象とする、ピアレビュー済みの学際的なデザインジャーナルです。」(。



1) デザイン主導型のビジネスアプローチ

2) 企業内のデザインチーム拡充

3) 新しいタイプの企業や新規事業の立ち上げ

4) グローバルな組織や財団法人を介した社会イノベーション

今回の記事では、1) デザイン主導型のビジネスアプローチと、2) 企業内デザインチームの拡充について論じたいと思います。


1) デザイン主導型のビジネスアプローチ

デザイン主導型の企業では通常、経営陣にデザイナーが参加しています。最もよく知られている例はApple社です。経営陣に参加しているのは、デザインの方法を知っていると同時にビジネスにも精通しているという、ある種特殊なデザイナーです。つまり、デザインを組織全体に組み込むひとつのアプローチとして、デザイナーを昇格させ組織の経営陣に加えるのです。この動きは、企業内デザインチームの拡充と統合につながります。それは経営陣に加わったデザイナーによってデザイン思考の活用が広く推進されることになるからです。Web サイト:www.fastcodesign.comに最近投稿された記事には、「将来最も重要になるデザイン職」のひとつとして、最高デザイン責任者(CDO: Chief Design Officer)が挙げられています。CDOを置くことで、企業はビジネスにおけるすべてのコンポーネントを戦略的かつ包括的にデザインしながら事業展開していけます。とはいえ、多くの企業にとってデザイナーを経営陣に加えることは難しいことかもしれません。


2) 企業内デザインチーム拡充のアプローチ

最近、企業内デザインチームの拡充が強いトレンドになっています。特にアメリカでその動きが目立ちます(Muratovski, 2015)。その方法はさまざまで、今まで企業内デザインチームが存在していなかった企業の一部は、中小規模のデザインコンサルタント会社を買収してその機能を取り入れています。デザインコンサルタント会社を買収・統合して現在の企業内デザインチームの規模を拡大している企業もあります。さらに別の企業では経験豊富なデザインリーダーを雇用して既存の企業内デザインチームを強化している所もあります。

企業内デザインチームを組織内で機能させるためのアプローチは2つあります。ひとつは、デザインチームのメンバーに組織内のデザインとデザイン思考のすべてを任せるアプローチです。一方で、組織内の「全員」をデザイン思考の実践者(Design Thinker)と見なす急進的なアプローチもあります。このアプローチを取ると組織の人員の大規模な再教育が必要になります。その場合、デザインの専門知識を持つ人材はトレーナーとして、またクリエイティブなデザイン思考のファシリテーターとして、組織内における役割を拡げることになります。例えば、IBM社ではさらに急進的なアプローチを採用し、今後数年間で1,000人の専門デザイナーを採用して、管理職の大多数にデザイン思考トレーニングを施す計画を立てています(Lohr, 2015※1

※1 詳しい内容は瀧口範子さんの記事をご参照ください。







Lohr, S. (2015) IBM's design-centered strategy to set free the squares.The New York Times, November 15, 2015.

Muratovski G. (2015) Paradigm shift:The new role of design in business and society, She Ji:The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, doi:10.1016/ j.sheji.2015.11.002.

The most important design jobs of the future:Designers at Google, Microsoft, Autodesk, IDEO, Artefact, Teague, Lunar, Huge, New Deal and Fuseproject predict 18 new design jobs.

Liz SandersMakeTools 代表



過去のExperience Magazine

  • 米国マーケティング最新事情 / 瀧口範子
  • デザインテクノロジーの最前線 / 桐山孝司
  • 「本能」から人間を読み解く / 佐藤武史
  • 注目のクリエーターズボイス